What is the SDF™ technology platform?
Abeona Therapeutics’ proprietary Salt Diafiltration Process™ (SDF) focuses on ethanol-free extraction of therapeutic biologics from human plasma. Plasma biologics are bio-pharmaceutical proteins extracted, purified, and formulated from human blood plasma by the use of biotechnological processing techniques including precipitation, diafiltration, affinity chromatography, and ion-exchange chromatography. These products are rendered virus-safe by means of chemical treatment, nanofiltration, and pasteurization. Plasma biologics primarily address indications arising from genetic deficiencies, which are increasingly being identified by means of newly available rapid and low-cost diagnostic genetic tests. Examples of plasma biologics include Alpha-1 Antitrypsin (also known as alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor, A1PI), Intravenous Immune Globulin (IVIG), Anti-Hemophilic Factor VIII (AHF) and Albumin.
Plasma biologics are currently obtained from human plasma by a fractionation process known as the Cohn Cold Ethanol Fractionation Process (Cohn Process), which was developed prior to World War II to provide a stable solution of human albumin for the rapid treatment of hemorrhagic shock on the battlefield. This process employs various concentrations of ethanol combined with adjustments of pH, ionic strength, and temperature to bring about the necessary separations by precipitation. Ethanol can inactivate many of the plasma proteins.
In contrast to the highly denaturing Cohn process, Abeona’s patented SDF™ method involves a short two-step, ethanol-free salt precipitation process optimized to extract a wide range of therapeutically useful biologic proteins from human blood plasma. SDF™ enables the production of unusually high yields of these proteins compared with the Cohn process.
What is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency?
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a rare (1 in 1,500 to 3,500) genetic (inherited) autosomal disorder that may cause lung disease from an inability to neutralize the enzyme neutrophil elastase and liver disease from retained misfolded protein. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency occurs worldwide, but its prevalence varies by population. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin is also known as alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor (A1PI).
About 10 percent of infants with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency develop liver disease, which often causes yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice). Approximately 15 percent of adults with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency develop liver damage (cirrhosis) due to the formation of scar tissue in the liver. Signs of cirrhosis include a swollen abdomen, swollen feet or legs, and jaundice. Individuals with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency are also at risk of developing a type of liver cancer called hepatocellular carcinoma.
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is inherited with an autosomal codominant pattern, which means that two different versions of the gene may be active (expressed), and both versions contribute to the genetic trait. The most common version (allele) of the SERPINA1 gene, called M, produces normal levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin. Most people in the general population have two copies of the M allele (MM) in each cell. Other versions of the SERPINA1 gene lead to reduced levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin. For example, the S allele produces moderately low levels of this protein, and the Z allele produces very little alpha-1 antitrypsin. Individuals with two copies of the Z allele (ZZ) in each cell are likely to have alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Those with the SZ combination have an increased risk of developing liver and lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
It is estimated that about 200,000 individuals in the United States and Europe, have severe alpha-1 antitrypsin deﬁciency. However, only about 5% of this number have been diagnosed as symptoms caused by this deficiency are very similar to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) from non-genetic causes. Only about only 1–2% of COPD patients have severe alpha-1 antitrypsin deﬁciency. The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) defines COPD a group of airflowlimited diseases including emphysema and chronic bronchitis. While severe alpha-1 antitrypsin deﬁciency can lead to or exacerbate all forms of COPD, it is considered to be the dominant cause of Panacinar Emphysema, a form of emphysema which causes gradual destruction of all lung aveolii.
Abeona Therapeutics is developing PTB-101 SDF Alpha™ (alpha1-proteinase inhibitor) for chronic augmentation and maintenance therapy in adults with clinically evident emphysema due to severe deficiency of alpha1-proteinase inhibitor.